Funeral Pyre

Funeral Pyre

A pyre is a framework, mostly made of wood. Thus far, people refer to it as a funeral pyre. It is made for burning a body as part of a funeral rite. Pyre is an ancient Greek word. So, a body may place upon or under the pyre which is then set on fire.  

Funeral pyres have been around the worlds throughout history. So, during the Bronze age, funeral pyres were in use in the modern-day Dublin. It was a part of funeral practices. Norse or Viking used pyres. Their aim was to create large amounts of smoke. The belief was that it would help them to the afterlife.

Pyre History 

So, the funeral pyre is an outdoor method of cremation. The belief is that funeral pyres first came into use about 800 BC, by the ancient Greeks. So far, funeral pyres have been in use throughout history. Thus far, some cultures continue to use them today. The pyre forms a part of a funeral service to manage the final rites. It may help people to dispose of the deceased person.

The family may scatter or bury the ashes. Some may choose to place them in an urn after the pyre ritual concludes. Thus far, it may vary. It may depend on religious or cultural beliefs. So, it may depend on the wishes of the deceased person too. Normally it may take up to five hours for the body to become ashes. Funeral pyres often reach up to 800 degrees Celsius.

Pyres Around The World 

Although many people relate a funeral pyre with Hindu cremation in India, this cremation method was used by many cultures. Thus far, many Hindus, mainly those living in various regions may not use funeral pyres. They may use other means for their end of life ceremonies. So, most cultures especially in India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Indonesia use funeral pyres today.

Funeral pyres were a status symbol during ancient times in Denmark. Pyres would be huge, often accompanied by firecrackers and gifts. It would use foliage with exclusive scents used with the pyre. So, it would incite all the senses of the mourners. Thus far, funeral pyres were crucial ritual in Denmark for thousands of years.

In ancient Rome, they carried the deceased to a funeral pyre outside of the city. After the body was burned down, the remains were buried. So, some may choose to store ashes in an ornamental container. Hence, for ancient Romans, having a funeral pyre was a sign of wealth. Sometimes, the poverty-stricken Romans were cremated on someone else’s pyre.

Thus far, Nordic countries have used funeral pyres too. So, they connect funeral pyres with Viking funerals.

Environmental Concerns

Funeral pyres face scrutiny as people investigate burial and cremation methods. Thus far, it is in view to determine if it is friendly to the environment. It is a fact that these ceremonies have been in use throughout history. However, others argue 50 to 60 million trees are cut down every year in India. Furthermore, it concerns the environmentalist with the amount of ash deposit in rivers. Hence, in India they should use more environmentally friendly methods. So, it may be interesting to see these ideas come to fruition sooner than later.

Death In Different Cultures

We all live and die. So, death is the same in all cultures. The cycle of death and birth is the same. Hence, how we view death and rituals are different. Thus far, all beliefs and rituals may be right in its own culture. So, there are other ways of grieving too.

The funeral ceremonies may take place in a church, synagogue, mosque or temple. It may be led by a priest, rabbit or a celebrant. They all include prayers to help the soul of the deceased.

Asian views on death is diverse. It makes up to 30 percent of the earth and accounts for 60 percent of the population. So far, many cultures and religions like Hindu, Islam, Buddhist and Confucianist.

Death – Celebration Of Life

Death – Celebration Of Life

Today, most families look to a service that celebrates the life of their loved ones. So, a celebration of life service is a form of end of life ceremony. Celebration of life are normally happening after the physical remains have been taken care of through cremation or burial. Thus far, people may get together to honour the unique lifestyle of the deceased.

Since the celebration of life take place after the funeral service, it provides more time to plan the event. Hence, you make the decisions. So, you may decide as to how you may want to celebrate the life of your loved one.

Funeral Vs Celebration Of Life 

A funeral service is more of a ritual. Thus, it is more to do with the orderly. It may often be religiously defined passage of the loved one from one social status to another. Whereas, celebration of life involves more of telling the stories of the deceased. So far, it is interesting that funerals and celebration of life may have so much in common. However, they often turn out very different.

Thus far, both are a collection of family and friends to share a common loss. They are both, ceremonies to share the loss of a loved one. Whereas one is more entrenched in tradition and the other focus on the changes in social values. The both serve to help and support the grieving family or the community.

Traditional Funerals

Funerals have been around since ancient times. In fact, the first known burial ritual was performed more than 50,000 years ago. So, it is these funeral rituals that people refer to as traditional funeral. It a more sombre event. Thus far, the service may include the visitation, funeral service and the committal service may perform at the graveside. Thus far, we recognise this funeral type easily.

The visitation or viewing is often prior to the funeral. So, it may be the night before. However, it may be on the same day too. It is a period of time where people may gather to support the family. More importantly they may pay their respects to the deceased.

Thus far, funeral service is mostly take place in a funeral home or church. Traditionally a funeral service is led by a priest of a celebrant. So, there is a fairly predictable order of activities. The service may include readings, singing of hymns and prayers.

So, the committal service take place at the cemetery. It often happens after a respectful motorcade procession from the funeral service place. Committal service may include several of the same activities that is seen in the funeral service. It often ends as the coffin is lowered into the grave. Thus, the final prayers are recited.

Life Celebrations 

A celebration of life concerns with telling of the life stories of the loved one. So, it is the moment in time when people may gather to reflect on the particular personality traits and achievements. Thus far, it may witness the change in their social prominence. It may be describe as a hybrid event too. So, combines the many activities of a traditional funeral service and celebration of life. Thus far, celebration of life service has more opportunities for creativity than a funeral.

So far, some people may view celebration of life as an alternative to fineral too. This decision may be based on wishes of the deceased person or the personality. However, it is not always the case. Sometimes the deceased person may have wished their family and friends to turn death into a party.

Thus far, an inappropriate behaviour at a funeral ceremony may be respectable at the celebration of life event. So, there are not strict rules. A celebration of life service may take place a few days and weeks or even years after the funeral.

Joyful Event 

Generally, you should expect to a joyful event when you attend a celebration of someone’s life. Thus far, the name itself signifies that attending to celebrate, not mourn. The event is less likely to use the convention and format of a religious funeral service. So, it will be more of a party than to commemorate the person’s death. 

Thus far, people attending should remember all the good things about the deceased. So, by definition it should be joyful and celebratory.










Death – Universal Part Of Life

Death – Universal Part Of Life

Death mostly gets a bad press. According to the Bible, it is ‘the last enemy’. Thus far, it is invariably the unwelcome visitor. It mostly arrives too soon, and most people fear death. So far, throughout history, many philosophers have suggested that without death we would be at a loss. It is the prospect of its coming that gets us out of bed every morning. Thus, we are driven to achieve great accomplishments. People may wish or dream of a deathless society. Thus far, without there may not be civilisation at all. So far, a growing body of testimony from social psychology may propose that these thinkers may be correct.

Natural Process

Death is natural, and it is inevitable. There is no denial. Whoever is born will die one day. There is a blurred line between dead and alive. Thus far, it is easier to be declared dead today than any time in history. The standards for declaring dead has fallen so low. So far, your heart may be beating, and your brain may be creating brain waves, however the doctor may declare as dead.

Thus far, the good news is that barely about one percent of the population may be subject to this death criteria. However, the sad news is that should you be in the one percent then you may be used for vivisection. It has been troubling humans for many centuries to determine when is a person dead. Thus, it is important to know, especially to the person who may be about to be buried or cremated. So far, we may look for foolproof clues. It is unclear to know if there is a central organ that may stop functioning when a person is dead. Moreover, is there a set of behaviours that may signal that a person is dead for certain?

Ancient Methods

For example, the ancient Greeks knew that many conditions imitate death. Thus, their test was to cut off a finger before cremation. With the ancient Egypt the responsibility stopped with the embalmer. So, Medieval Europeans were even more uncertain about who was dead and who was alive. Their records began to fill with accounts of premature burials. From the 1500s to the 1700s, across Europe the anatomists would perform public dissections on executed prisoners. So, the difficulties were highlighted by the anatomy theatres.

Universal Experience

Hence, death is one of the most universal experiences. It is obviously a common human fact. So far, in this sense, death is probably most prevalent than anything imaginable. For a long time, discussion on death has been a great taboo of life. Despite it being a depressing fact of life, we can never get away from it. So, for some people, it may come sooner than others. We might be given a sudden news, while for others we may have time for a final goodbye.


Many health care professionals study thanatology. It is the study of dying. Thus far its focus is to understand and psychological responses to the end of life. So, the study of thanatology provides health professionals and educators a better knowledge of human mortality. Hence, it helps them to provide comfort to person who is facing death and their families.

It is complex to understand the human condition. So far, it is a difficult task. We all have funny ways to think about such situations. Especially when it surrounds your own death. Thus far, the ‘my death versus your death’ theory is a unique way we believe ‘your death’ is certain. However, for ‘my death’ there may be an exemption. Hence, in a mysterious way it grants us to think both, our death and our ‘eternal life’. It is something many people may find comforting.

Death Forever

At all times many people contemplate what it means to be alive. Thus, what happens after death. So far, evaluate if we become another being or we simply cease to exist. Many people are a little anxious to think about it. Thus far, for us to think about not living is often uncomfortable. It is simply because it is something nobody has accomplished. In fact, what it means is the person accomplish and returns from dead to substantiate.

Thus far, although nobody has some back from dead, there are a few people with a ‘near death experience’. So, these people often describe a feeling of being out of one’s body. Hence, they may interact with the deceased loved ones.


Funeral Celebrant Role

Funeral Celebrant Role

A funeral celebrant is a qualified professional. They work with the family to preside a funeral service. Often they are from a non-priesthood background. Thus far, funeral celebrant help plan and oversea the funeral proceedings. So, the objective of the celebrant is to ensure the ceremony honours the values, beliefs and wishes of the deceased person. Furthermore, they support the grieving family at each step of the proceedings. They help celebrate the life of the person who passed away.

To partner with the right celebrant may allow for a smooth conducive service. It may provide a beautiful celebration of life. So, they qualify to conduct various types of ceremonies. It may be from non-religious, semi-religious to spiritual funeral services. Thus far, most celebrants may customise the ceremony. They may choose to focus on how the person chose to live their life. Thus, an emphasis may be on their charisma and the memories.

Religious Beliefs

Using a celebrant is a good option for people who look to create meaningful ceremonies without integrating religious beliefs. So, funeral celebrants are generally neither linked to any religious denominations nor afterlife beliefs. However, the celebrant can be religious. The funeral director you choose will know of local clergy who may perform religious rites and civil celebrant if you don’t have anyone in mind.

Who May Be Funeral Celebrant

Anyone may preside over a funeral service. Thus far, they may be a member of the clergy, a civil celebrant, a family member or a friend. They may have shared the person’s outlook on life, beliefs and spirituality.

When choosing your celebrant, be mindful, the person leads the ceremonies. While traditionally it was a role for a religious delegate such as a minister or a priest it is not that important today. More people now choose to use non-religious celebrants to officiate the service. Thus, you may hire a celebrant who can perform all this for you.

What Does A Celebrant Do?

The primary role for the celebrant is to work with the family. They create a life celebration of the deceased person. So, the aim is to give the person a celebrated farewell they deserve and desire.

Hence, a celebrant will meet with the family to discuss the funeral service. So far, it is important to learn the atmosphere the family wish to create. They may need to spend a few hours in discussion with the family. Thus, it may be crucial to understand about the person, their personality and the lifestyle. It may lead to liaise with funeral director if necessary.

Furthermore, the celebrant become part of the planning team. Thus, they may need to assist with planning the funeral service. It may include the readings, poems and music. Thus far, it needs to put together and of service for the funeral. The ultimate goal is to deliver a funeral service that reflects on the life of the deceased. It must give all mourners the opportunity to say goodbye.

How To Choose A Funeral Celebrant

A reputable funeral director is a good start for celebrant recommendation. However, you may want to choose your own funeral celebrant. Thus far, you need to be comfortable with them. You need to be confident that they can perform the service the way you want.

Hence, it is important that you meet with the celebrant in person. This helps you better with your selection and decision-making process. So, it is important that you explain the type of funeral service you are looking for. too. Furthermore, you must stipulate your involvement in the planning process.

It is important to choose the right funeral celebrant. They help pay tribute and last respects to your loved one. So far, there are so many options in the market. At times it may be overwhelming to choose the right one. Hence, it may be a good idea to make a list, meet them in person and take notes. Select the best person that suits you and the family.

Thus far, every family has a different need, so it may take a great deal to plan a memorable funeral. So, explain carefully to the celebrant your needs and wants. Then work with them to create memories that perfectly encapsulates the spirit of your loved one.


Reincarnation Concept

Reincarnation Concept

Indian religions believe in reincarnation concept. It is a recycle of life after death. Thus, it provides the opportunity to pursue spiritual liberation. It is achieved by ethical living. The many spiritual practices help too.

Reincarnation is one of the enigmas that puzzles human mind. It has been like so since the beginning of mankind. So, the concept of reincarnation literally means to take on the flesh again. Thus far, it means that we leave one life and go into another. Hence, the soul may take the form of human, animal, or plant. So, it depends on the moral quality of the previous life’s actions. Thus far, as civilisation evolves, it discriminates beliefs and spreads throughout various religions.

So far, reincarnation is also known as rebirth, transmigration and metempsychosis, which is a Greek word. 


So far, the major division manifests between the East and the West. Hence, the eastern religion takes a view of being more philosophical. It is less analytical and accepts reincarnation.

However, the various eastern religions mostly Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism may differ in their faith in rebirth. Whereas, the Islam refuse to accept it. Thus far, the most dominant religion of the world, Christianity with its origin in the west, mostly deny reincarnation. So far, some sub-sects may express interest in reincarnation.


This subject has been in discussion in the philosophical traditions of India and Greece from about the 6th century BC. Thus far, reincarnation is the religious and philosophical belief. It believes that karma governs the rise to the recycle of death and birth. So far, the process is universal and unified. Thus, some may refer to it as Samsara.

Karma is the person’s actions and deeds through the life. So, it may be good and it may be bad. Thus, their karma determines the subsequent birth. For this illustration, a person may have done a lot of mystical deeds. Furthermore, the desire may be to continue such service at the time of death. Thus, the person may be reborn in a family that supports such desires.

Thus far the Bhagavad Gita states ‘Never was there a time when I did not exist. Neither you, nor all these kings; nor in the future shall any of us cease to be. So, the embodied soul continuously passes, in this body, from childhood to youth to old age. Thus, the soul similarly passes into another body at death. A sober person is not bewildered by such a change. It is like worn-out garments are shed by the body. Thus far, worn-out bodies are shed by the dweller within the body. So, new bodies are donned by the dweller, like garments.’


The Buddhist perception of reincarnation may have a little difference. It believes there is no eternal soul, spirit or self. Thus, there is only a stream of consciousness which may link life with life. So, the process of change from one life to another is known as punarbhava. It is a Sanskrit word which means becoming again.

The early Buddhist history discuss the methods for recalling previous births. It predicates on the development of high levels of meditation. Thus far, Buddha warned that this experience may be misleading. So, one needs to interpret with care. Buddhism teaches the specific concept of rebirth. Thus far, it constrains by the theory of anatta. So, there is no irreducible atman or self-tying the lives together. Thus, it may serve as a contrast to Hinduism.

The evolving consciousness upon death becomes the key contribution. It causes for the arising of new aggregate. Thus, at death of a person, a new one comes into being. So, it is much like the flame dying candle. It may serve to light the flame of another. Thus far, the consciousness of the new individual is neither identical nor absolutely different from the deceased. So, transmigrations are the effect of karma.

Jain Beliefs

Jainism connects with Sramana doctrine. So far, the earliest mentions of reincarnation associates with it. Thus, karma is the significant part of Jain faith too. There is an intricate connection to other of its profound concepts. So, they may be liberation, transmigration or reincarnation. Jains consider the soul and matter are eternal, perpetual and uncreated. So, there is a regular give-and-take between the two. Thus far, it results in disconcert planetary manifestations in material, psychic and emotional spheres. So, this leads to the rebirth and transmigration theories.

Hence, the passage to become a supreme soul is to practice non-violence and be truthful. Daily actions are seen to have many consequences. Some may be immediate, and others delayed. This may even be into future incarnations. Therefore, the karma concept may not be in relation to one life time. So, it may be in relation to past lives and future incarnations. Thus far, karma is crucial for death and rebirth cycle.

Sikh Religion

Sikh religion teaches the path of Bhakti to accomplish salvation. So far, Sikhs believe that the soul passes from one body to another until it liberates. Hence, when one preforms good actions and remembers the creator, they may attain a better life. If the person carries out evil actions and commit sins, they may be reborn in lower forms of life. 

Thus. reincarnation is mostly due to the law of cause and effect. However, it does not create any cast or inequality among people. Moreover, Sikhism believe that God may pardon the wrong doings and release us.

Islam Beliefs

Most main monotheistic religions refute reincarnation. Thus far, it is against their fundamental teachings. So, their belief is if one has to go through many lives, on which life do they get judged? Hence, they dismiss the reincarnation concept. However, Islam does preach the existence of soul. So far, the principle belief is that there is only one birth on this earth. The judgement day comes after death. Thus, it determines if one goes to hell or unifies with God.

However, few Muslim sects accept the reincarnation concept. So far, the Shia and Druzes sects regard its founders as in special sense divine incarnations. Furthermore, Sinan ibn Salman ibn Muhammad, subscribes to the transmigration of souls as a tenet of the Alawi. Thus far, modern Sufis who embrace the idea of reincarnation include Bawa Muhaiyadeen.


There is no mention of reincarnation in the Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. Thus, it is not an important creed in Judaism culture. However, medieval Jewish philosophers discuss the issue. It often rejects reincarnation concept. Although, Jewish mystical literature from their classic medieval canon onwards teach a belief in metempsychosis of souls. So, it literally preaches soul cycle. 

Other, Non-Hasidic, Orthodox Jewish groups do support it as a valid teaching. However, there is not a heavy focus on reincarnation.


Most major Christian denominations repeal reincarnation theory. Thus far, Christian belief is that when a person dies, the soul sleeps in the grave with the corpse. So far, it believes the soul sleeps until a time in the future. It is known as the last day or day of judgement.

However, Bible manifest that Jesus, himself teaches reincarnation. Thus far, there was a disagreement in understanding Jesus himself in early Christian history. Hence there was a conflict between the Church set up by Paul in Rome and the remnants of the Jerusalem Church. So, the Roman faction rejects reincarnation and pre-existence. They believe Jesus was God who become man.

Thus far, the Jerusalem faction knew Jesus was a man. They believe he achieved the human divine. Furthermore, they knew the goal of everyone was to escape reincarnation cycle of birth and death. Thus far the objective was to have an eternal life. The fact remains that Rome won the political encounter. So the orthodox definition of resurrection reduces to an end-of-time, ‘Night of the Living Dead’.

Afterlife Beliefs

Afterlife Beliefs 

Afterlife is a continuation in which the essence of a person’s identity continues to live on. Thus, it is true after the death of the body. It also refers to as life after death. Thus far, there may be different beliefs about life after death. So, the principle form of the individual that lives on may be some partial element. It may be the entire soul or spirit that carries on with it. Thus, it may confer personal identity. So far, the belief in afterlife may contradict to the belief in oblivion after death.

Certain belief systems, like in the Abrahamic tradition believe that the dead go to a specific plane of reality after death. Thus far, the belief is that God determines the rebirth. The other eternal judgement may base on their actions during a lifetime.

Life Cycle

There are certain views that the continuation may take form in a spiritual realm. So far, other prominent views are that individuals are reborn. It believes that they may be reborn in this world. Thus far, they begin the life cycle again. It is most likely that they don’t have any memory of the previous life.

Thus far, in the latter view, deaths and rebirths is continuous many times over. It may continue until the individual gains passage to spiritual realm. So far, the major views on life after death aligns with religion, ideology and newness.

Near Death Experience 

A near-death is a real experience. It is a conscious involvement where the individual may experience of being severed from the physical world. So, in this process, it is a physiological death. Thus, the person

may experience their own dying. Simultaneously they become aware existing without a body. So, they experience an altered state where there is a sense of peace.

It is a sense of separation of consciousness from the body. Thus far, it may enter darkness and then see a light. It may meet spirits and spiritual entities. So, they may experience a scenic life review. There may be a sense of judgement too. Thus far, near-death experiences positively affect life understanding. So, when confronting with death it may give more meaning to life.

To have an effective evaluation of near-death experiences, it may be important to understand the personal beliefs. So far, it is imperative to know the person’s afterlife ideology. Hence, near-death experience may be a result of social conditioning. The religious beliefs and culture may inflence it too.

Religious Interpretations

Many studies show that the majority of people believe that death is not the end. Thus far, the belief is death is the transition from one life to another. So, various religions provide different belief structures. They all support the religious and social importance. 

Thus far, the rituals and sacred scriptures support their interpretations of deaths and life after death. While there are differences in religious beliefs, there are many similarities. One such similarity is the belief in an afterlife following death. Thus far, the other is that the abode of the righteous goes to heaven and the wicked may go to hell.


So far, most religions believe in the immortality of spirits. This belief has been for many centuries. Hence, the oldest concept in human history is the belief that there is life after death. Many theologians, philosophers and scientists have had the objective to prove the immortality of human soul.

In fact, Freud states our own death is indeed unimaginable. Hence wherever we try to imagine it, we perceive that we really survive as spectators. So, the psychoanalytic school could venture on the assertion that at bottom no one believes in his own death.


Coronavirus Deaths

Coronavirus Death

Covid-19 is advancing around the world at a rapid rate. Thus far, there are more than 150 million confirmed cases. So far, it records about 3 million deaths in almost over 200 countries. It affects almost all countries throughout the world. So far, very few places are safe. Thus far, India, USA and Brazil record the largest number of confirmed coronavirus cases. It is closely followed by France, Turkey, Russia and the United Kingdom.

Steep Increase

The world experiences a steep rise in confirmed cases. Thus far, it has been steeply rising since the middle of 2020. In fact, its unprecedented. So far, the true extent of the first outbreaks in 2020 is lacking clarity. Its because testing was not readily available.

At the end of January 2021 saw the 100 millionth coronavirus case. It was almost about a year after the first case was officially diagnosed. The world now sees more than 150 million official cases. So far, deaths have been rising steadily. To date, official figures may not be a true refection in many countries. Hence, a measure of how many more people are dying than may be over previous years may reflect a better indication.

Vaccination Rollout

The World Health Organisation (WHO), individual countries and groups of countries like the European Union have approved several COVID-19 vaccines.

There are almost 180 countries and territories that administer vaccines. Thus far, they publish the rollout information. Of these countries, 68 are high income, 95 are middle-income and 17 are low income bracket. So far, this data updates regularly. However, it may not reflect the latest totals for each nation.

Thus far, the total vaccinations published refers to the quantity of doses given. It may not mean that many people have received vaccination. So far, China and USA have been given the most doses. In fact, 281 million and 246 million respectively. To date, India administers almost 156 million doses. Thus far, to breaking the figures by doses per 100 people in respective countries with a population of at least one million, Israel and the United Arab Emirates are topping the list.

Priority Vaccination

Most countries are giving priority to the over 60s. Then it follows by health workers and people who may be clinically vulnerable. So far, some countries have secured more vaccine doses that the population. While the lower income countries rely on a global plan. It is known as Covax. Simply, Covax ensures everyone has access to a vaccine in the world.

It was an international effort to setup the Covax scheme. So, it was setup in 2020 to ensure a fair access to vaccines for the rich and poor countries. Covax creates to the pool the global vaccine and helps ensure fairer distribution in a mechanism. In creating the pool, the richer countries help offset the costs of getting vaccines to poorer nations. However, the global position remains greatly uneven. So far, more than 49 million vaccine doses have been allocated through the Covax scheme.

Many African countries are receiving vaccines through the global plan. Thus far, vaccinations are now underway in Ghana, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, Kenya and Rwanda, among others.

Destroying Livelihoods

The coronavirus pandemic is destroying livelihoods. It claims the lives of many people worldwide. So far, the number is more than 3 million. Hence, vaccines rolls out across the globe in an attempt to stop the pandemic. The fight against coronavirus is a global challenge. Thus, the Health Experts including the chief of WHO endorse the fight. Furthermore, they urge the wealthier nations to do more to help the others in need. It is imperative to bring the pandemic situations under control. Many countries so far have a widespread vaccine program. Thus far, the number of daily cases is stable or maybe falling in most regions. However, because of India’s recent surge in cases, Asia is a notable exception.

So far, several European countries have seen spikes in coronavirus cases. However, the daily infections are slowing down in the worst affected countries. Thus far, countries like Turkey, France and Germany are seeing overall downward trend. There has been some problems with the European Union rollout.  So far, there have been delays with deliveries. Furthermore, there are certain concerns over the safety of the Oxford-Astra Zeneca vaccine. Thus, a number of countries have withdrawn from using Astra Zeneca. In certain cases they restrict to certain age groups.

Coronavirus And Funerals

Coronavirus and Funerals

Coronavirus is changing how we arrange funeral services. So, it is important how to deal with the dead. Thus far, those who die may become more of a pressing issue. So far, death rates are increasing in most countries.

With COVID-19, people who lose their loved ones may have to contend with additional trauma.  Thus far, they may not be able to give a proper farewell to their loved ones. It is because funerals change completely during the pandemic.

Law Treatment

The two important things with law’s treatment of human remains is the respect for the dead and public health interests. Thus, the health concerns focus on the risk of disease spread and body decay. During the pandemic the focus shifts to public health. So, to provide respect for the dead, all possible steps takes place.

The Public Health COVID-19 legislations and regulations are put in place. Thus far, the act may have a range of powers. So, these may allow public organisations to respond to the pandemic. These, together with other government regulations may have a significant impact. In fact, it dictates how to conduct a funeral and what may happen to the dead.

COVID-19 Restrictions 

The capacity at a funeral keeps changing from time to time. NSW Health Department monitors and establishes guidelines. So far, in the pandemic, the general rule is not to exceed one person per two square metres. Thus far, funerals held at any premises must have a Covid-19 Safety Plan. So, you may complete a safety plan online on NSW Government website. It may take 30 to 40 minutes to make the safety plan. Thus far, a provision to record visitor details is mandatory.

You will help to reduce the risk of spreading COVID-19 when you practice social distancing. So, maintain 1.5 metres distance. Hence avoid close contact with people you don’t live with. For people who live in the same household do not need keep 1.5 metre distance.

NSW Health recommends that you carry a clean face mask with you. It strongly proposes to wear the mask when you are not able to maintain 1.5 metres of physical distance.

Handling of Bodies 

The guidance develops from what is currently known about COVID-19. Thus far, the virus is spread over by contact. The contaminated respiratory releases when infected persons sneeze or cough. It may infect others by contamination of hands and surfaces. 

By using appropriate control procedures and infection prevention it reduces the risk of infection. So, one may wear Personal Protection Equipment (PPE). Thus far, funeral directors and mortuary staff are less at risk to contract Covid-19 from deceased persons who may be infected with virus. So far, the greatest risk may be to come from contact with family members.

Thus far, the body is important to put in a body bag. It shloud be secure for transport and to store. Otherwise, wrap in a way that prevents leakage. So, double bagging may help. Label the body bag ‘COVID-19 – Handle with care.’ Furthermore, avoid needless manipulation of the body. It may expel air or fluid from the lungs.


Hence, using precautionary methods should minimise public health challenges. So, it prevents spreading the disease. It highly recommends not to embalm a body that is confirmed or suspected to have COVID-19 infection. Thus far, family viewing of the deceased may occur. However, family members should not have contact with the body. So, if contact happens, perform hand hygiene.

Thus far, use contact and droplet precautions when handling the deceased bodies infected with COVID-19 virus. It recommends wearing suitable PPE at all times when handling deceased bodies. It should not contaminate environmental surfaces.

So far, there is no evidence of an increased risk of transmission of the virus that causes COVID-19 to funeral industry workers. The greatest risk is likely to come from failure to employ infection prevention and control measures. Moreover, contact with family members.

COVID-19 Virus

A new strain of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causes the COVID-19 disease. It has not been formerly diagnosed in humans. Thus far, the first identification relates to Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. It has caused a huge and ongoing outbreak. Since then, many other countries report of the disease. So far, it includes Australia.

People are at risk of infection if they come in close contact with infected persons. It may be face to face for at least 15 minutes with a peson who has COVID-19.

Mourning Definition

Mourning Definition

Mourning is a process that a person goes through to adjust to a loss. It may be death of a loved one that is close and dear to you. Thus far, culture, rituals, and community rules may influence mourning. It may be a different experience for everyone. 

Everyone feels sad from time to time. So, if it occurs most days, for example more than two weeks, it may mean clinical depression. So far, major depression is a period of sadness that causes low motivation and irritation. There may be other symptoms for at least two weeks in a row. For instance, it may be severe enough to cause negative effect on a person’s life.


Thus far, clinical depression is neither a sign of weakness nor a character defect. It is real medical illness that can be treated. So, the brain scans may indicate low activity for a person suffering from depression.

It often worsens many other medical challenges. Especially those that may cause chronic illness. Thus far, the brain chemicals may affect mood swings and pain. So, treating depression helps to improve the symptoms. Hence, outcomes of many physical sickness.


The most noticeable symptoms are sadness and resentful moods. Furthermore, they may lose interest in most activities. They may have enjoyed these previously. Thus far, many patients may experience guilt despite not doing anything wrong. They may often feel worthless and hopeless. Moreover, they may have a recurring intent to self-harm or kill themselves. It could lead to suicide.

Depressions associates with physical symptoms too. Thus far, these may include low energy or tiredness, and sleeping too much. It may be trouble sleeping too. Furthermore, the person may experience aches and pains. Headaches, digestive challenges and muscle cramps are prominent. So, it may cause diarrhea or constipation.

Many people with depression may experience gaining or losing weight substantially. Depression causes an increase or decrease in appetite.

Impacts Life

If depression if left untreated, it causes negative impact on the person’s life. Thus far, it may affect their relationships, career and daily activities. So, people with depression may have troubles to concentrate and make decisions. Hence, they may cease to participate in things they used to enjoy. They may not want to spend time with their loved ones too. So, with severe depression, it may be fatal. It may result in suicide or homicide.

Thus far, it is possible that people with depression may try to commit suicide. They may show warning signs like talking about dying or suicide. It is possible they may threaten to hurt others or take excessive risks like giving away personal belongings. These warning signs should be taken seriously. Hence, provide immediate assistance with experienced professionals.

Developing Depression

Anyone can develop depression. It is widely believed that a family history of depression may be a risk factor. For instance, risk increases for the sibling or child of a person suffering from depression. Thus far, women are said to be twice as likely as men to have this condition. It affects at some point in their lives.

The symptoms of this sickness vary based on age, gender and culture background. So, how often depression occurs may be difficult to determine. Thus far, it is difficult to determine what causes depression. However, mostly an acceptable theory has been a change in brain structure and chemistry. Hence, a substance known as neurotransmitters are out of balance in people with depression. So, the possible causes for the imbalance may be alcohol, certain medicines or abuse. Other causes may be losing a job, seasonal change or a traumatic experience.

Afflicts Children

Research determine that depression afflicts 2% of children in grade school. Thus far, almost 10% if teenagers may suffer from depression. So, it can impair the child and adolescent’s friendships. It may affect school performance too.

Thus far, many symptoms in children are similar to adults suffering from depression. However, it may be more difficult to diagnose in children.

Nepalese Gurung Community Death Rites

Nepalese Gurung Community Death Rites

Gurungs follow Bonism. It is the pre-Buddhist religion of Tibet. Thus far, it involves the worship of nature spirits. So, it practices to sacrifice too. Hence, it has influence on the Tibetan form of Buddhism.

Death Rites

So, many principles influence Gurung death rites. It may be migration, modernisation or urbanisation. Hence, people develop rituals and ceremonies over time. So far, it is to make sense and celebrate adjustments in circumstances. Thus far, with time, some rituals may dilute. In some cases, even rejection due to position and relationship. So far, there has been evolution of behaviours to use in death rites. However, so far, many cultures give the greatest importance to the death rites. Thus far, nowadays, in its ambiguity, it is one that dilutes the most. Often, it is lost too.

The death rituals coordinate to create solidarity through ‘Syaisyai’. It is a social institution to unite the Gurungs. The bond between the giver and gift, thus creates a social bond in Gurung community. So, it obligates to reciprocate on part of the recipient.

Multiethnic Society

Nepal is a multiethnic and multilingual country. Thus far, among the many castle and ethnic groups, Gurung is one of the major groups. So, the Nepalese Gurung considers an ethnic group known for the internal social cohesion.

The Gurung society is renowned for the ability to work well together. It can be in many chores. Thus far, it is their strength despite the economic conditions and political beliefs.

They follow a glorious military career in Nepal, India and British armies too. Thus far, they possess a unique Lahure culture. It means the culture to go abroad for a career in foreign armies. More than 1.1 million of the people in Nepal speak the Gurung language.

Urbanisation & Modernisation

The impact of death rites often links with urban and modern way of living. It links to the social process to rationalise too. Thus far, it has been a historic and speedy transformation for the Gurung community roots. In fact, the urban culture rapidly modifies the rural Gurungs.

Despite the modifications there is an important aspect of unity, sympathy and cooperation. It owes to death rites amongst the Gurungs. So, it ties all Gurungs to share and endorse the bond. It creates a special relationship between the living and the dead.

Traditional Homeland

The southern hill slopes of the Annapurna Himalayan range are the traditional homeland for the Gurungs. So, the historic area for them is Lamiung and Kaski. They speak their own language and practice their cultures and rituals.

Pye-Tan Lou-Tan is their traditional religious scripture. It explains a long history of Gurung people. Thus far, they follow the rituals, customs and traditions as per the Pye-Tan Lhu-Tan.

The common theory for social articulation is rite of passage. It denotes rituals that mark the transition phase from childhood into full inclusion of a tribe. For instance, the rituals that perform at death may resemble those during the important phase in life on the individual. So, they may be birth, social puberty and marriage.

Life Journey

They believe in that life is a journey and the individual is a passenger. So, the individual may face periodic challenges which they must manage throughout the journey. It may happen at different phase in life. The society develops ceremonial responses to help cope with the challenges.

Thus far, rites of passage may review and characterise many landmarks in the persons life. It is mostly marked for transition stages or when the person’s social status change. So far, it includes puberty, marriage and death. The rites of passage in Gurung society are rituals that symbolise transition from one phase to another.

Important Rituals

All rituals are extremely important to the Gurungs. However, amongst these rituals death rite of passage is crucial and compulsory. Thus far, the death rites of passage for Gurung are divided into three parts. They are Antesty Kirya, Bayupuja and Arghun (Pae).

The mourning period for Gurung people maybe from three days to thirteen days. It depends on the culture of the region and what the desire. It is called Antesty Kriya. So, Bayupuja or Pitripuja performs in Mangsir Purnima or Panchami and Baishakh Purnima or Panchami. Some people may perform Bayupuja when they believe that they may suffer because of the deceased person’s soul. Hence, belief is that a family member or livestock may become sick. So, the Gurung priest, Ghepren or Pachyu may declare the dead person’s soul or pitr causes sickness. Thus far, Bayupuja may perform at a suitable time.

It is done continuously every Mangsir Purnima and Baishakh Purnima until conducting Arghun. It is a final, however important after death ritual to perform. Thus far, it may perform after a certain period. It may depend at the comfort and convenience of deceased persons family. In principle, Arghun, may observe on the last day of the death pollution. Alternatively, it may be on the 45th day of death.

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